Archive for the ‘Medical Disorder Forensics’ Category

Cancer screening among jail inmates

March 18, 2013

Many cancer victims can significantly improve the prognosis of the diagnosis with early detection and treatment. Two cancer types that have had improvement in survival rates due to disease screening are breast cancer and cervical cancer. Screening test for breast cancer include breast self-examination (BSE), clinical breast examination (CBE) and mammography. The screening test for cervical cancer is the Papanicolaou (Pap) test. The National Cancer Institute (NCI) released a series of statements of benefit and harm for the above screening tests based on research. In the case of BSE, the NCI asserts that it does not reduce breast cancer mortality and formal instruction and encouragement to perform leads to more breast biopsies and to the diagnosis of more benign breast lesions. In the case of CBE, screening reduces breast cancer mortality. For Mammography performed in women aged 40 to 70 years, breast cancer mortality decreases. The benefit is higher for older women, in part because their breast cancer risk is higher. With the Pap test, regular screening of appropriate women reduces mortality from cervical cancer. In any screening examination, false-positives result in further testing which can carry inherent risks and false negatives may provide false reassurances resulting in a delay in cancer diagnosis. A study conducted at the University of San Francisco reviewed cancer screening of these conditions among jail inmates. The study reviewed the sociodemographic profile of incarcerated persons and suggested they might be at higher risk for the development of certain cancers and for poor outcomes from those cancers. One item the study sought to examine was whether these inmates had received age-appropriate screening. Findings revealed no significant difference in cervical cancer screening between these inmates and other non-incarcerated individuals, however, the women who reported having a Pap test while in jail or prison were significantly more likely to be up to date on cervical cancer screening than women who had never had a Pap test while incarcerated. This suggests that correctional systems may be a principal provider of this preventive test for many female inmates. The researchers report that study results in regards to breast cancer screening was limited by a small number of women in older age groups. Their limited findings suggest, however, that women in the study group were less likely to be up to date on mammography than California women. They also reported that knowledge about breast cancer screening could be improved as most women eligible for screening identified breast examinations rather than mammography as a mean of screening, despite the fact that the CBE and BSE are of less certain benefit than mammography. There is no national registry for tracking disease prevalence and risk factors among incarcerated persons and they are excluded from national health surveys. The results of the cited study were from data obtained by self-report, which are likely to overestimate frequency. A cancer screening registry or statewide computerized medical records in jails would give more significance to this data and may show or confirm that the jail may be an appropriate setting for this type of cancer screening.

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Managing the Incidence of Syphilis

March 12, 2013

The U.S. syphilis rate increased for the seventh consecutive year in 2007 according to the CDC. This is a concerning finding given the potentially serious consequences of the disease if it goes untreated. Effective screening is essential and is a big focus for the CDC as well as many advocacy groups for at risk individuals. The disease is mostly spread through sexual contact, but can also be passed from the mother to child in utero. This can have devastating effects including stillbirth, death shortly after birth or death after a period of illness in infancy. In the adult, the disease can go undetected for many years if the lesions in the primary and secondary stages go unrecognized. They can then be in a latent stage for many years before progressing to the late stage where the disease can cause serious and extensive damage to the body. Syphilis has also been called “the great imitator” since it’s symptoms often resemble those of other diseases. Since the disease is highly treatable in the early stages, screening efforts have the potential for significantly decreasing these divesting occurrences. By treating the infected individual you have high probability of cure thus reducing the effects in the individual as well as preventing spread of the disease to others. Widening screening efforts can facilitate earlier identification of the disease. This is important since the secondary stage of the disease is the most contagious when the infectious lesions are more numerous on the body. The CDC put together a report in 2003 with recommendations for surveillance of the disease in an effort to advance a national plan to eliminate syphilis from the United States. In this report is a list of “priority populations” for routine screening efforts. This list includes arrestees, pregnant women, STD clinic patients and patients diagnosed with STDs in other settings, clients at drug treatment facilities, HIV counseling and testing clients, clients in certain specialty clinics (i.e., HIV, family planning, community based), homeless populations and emergency room patients. The next step in facilitating effective control measures is reporting. With adequate reporting epidemic patterns can be assessed and adequate treatment can be assumed to prevent sequelae of infection. It can also be used to identify cases in a timely fashion in order to interrupt the chain of infection by management of sexual contacts and behavioral risk reduction counseling.

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Why we haven’t cured cancer yet, review

June 11, 2012

Click image to enlarge
Why We Haven't Cured Cancer
Via: MedicareSupplementalInsurance.com

http://www.medicaresupplementalinsurance.com/why-we-havent-cured-cancer.html

Hypoglycemic Attack, Comment

May 29, 2009

I saw the same clip you are talking about on the news. I totally agree with you that law enforcement agencies should be educated in this matter. Not just with hypoglycemia but other diseases as well. Now a days law enforcement officers seem to be jumping the gun rather then assessing the real situation. For example, at a local hospital in Houston, Texas, a disoriented man drove up to the emergency entrance and was acting psychotic. He was clearly very ill. This man had no idea what he was saying or had no control over his actions. He continued to make threats towards the medical team when they were trying to help. The police were called to the scene and drew their weapons. Then he started to make verbal threats towards the police officers while making all sorts of hand gestures. When the man seemed to reach for something in his vehicle, the police shot this man 6 times. Since, this hospital was only a level one, they had to life flight him to a different facility. After investigating the crime scene, it turns out that the man was only reaching for a flashlight!

Original Post:
May 27, 2009
Title: Hypoglycemic Attack

Not only is the public ignorant about diseases like Parkinson’s, but other disorders as well. For example, on the news there was a man that seemed to be avading the police when in reality he was having a hypoglycemic attack. When the man finally came to a stop, the police bashed his window in and pulled the man out of his car through the window breaking his arm in multiple places. When they finally drug him out of his car window, they threw him to the ground and continued to beat this man into handcuffs. Had the police actually known about the signs and symptoms of hypoglycemia instead of assuming that he was under the influence, this would have saved them a law suit. So, even in law enforcement, there is room for education about different diseases.

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Hypoglycemic Attack

May 27, 2009

Not only is the public ignorant about diseases like Parkinson’s, but other disorders as well. For example, on the news there was a man that seemed to be avading the police when in reality he was having a hypoglycemic attack. When the man finally came to a stop, the police bashed his window in and pulled the man out of his car through the window breaking his arm in multiple places. When they finally drug him out of his car window, they threw him to the ground and continued to beat this man into handcuffs. Had the police actually known about the signs and symptoms of hypoglycemia instead of assuming that he was under the influence, this would have saved them a law suit. So, even in law enforcement, there is room for education about different diseases.

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