Archive for the ‘Environmental Terrorism’ Category

Bio-Terrorism and Nursing: Like it or Not!

April 2, 2013

Nurses are use to yearly educational requirements. Each state requires a certain amount every year just to renew a license. The federal government requires that each hospital educates it’s employees in certain areas yearly, and then there are the classes a nurse has to take to work in the areas of specialization that interest them. As I said, nurses are use to educational requirements. That is why it is so surprising to see the resistance that most nurses seem to have in regards to bio-terrorism training. I have found very few nurses that say “oh how wonderful, I get to do my bio training and use some drain tarps.” I am not sure why this is. Do we find it boring? Is it so far from what we usually train for that we have trouble grasping it? Or is it so disturbing to think about the actual event happening in our country that we don’t want to face the true possibility. Whatever the reason, I know that each time I am faced with the information, a part of me cringes away from it wanting to put up a block such as a flame retardant tarp, and I seem to have more trouble remembering the information than any other topic I study. I have often asked myself, if truly faced with a bioterrorism threat, will I rush to the hospital to help, or will I want to take my family, wrap them in canvas blankets, and run from the area to protect them. I hope that I never have to face the choice.

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Toxic Workplace, comment

December 18, 2011

Hi There Forensicnursingcourses,
This comment may be a little off-topic.

It was so painful for me as my wife Lil and I watched the events of September 11, 2001 on television. Seeing a plane hit the World Trade Center (WTC) North Tower at 8:46, then a second plane hit the South Tower at 9:02. Shortly, we saw the firefighters and other first responders courageously going into the buildings hoping to extinguish the fires, but it was impossible to foresee what followed.

Then we watched in shock as nearly a dozen people were jumping from the upper floors to their deaths.

We felt profound horror at 9:59 as the South Tower cascaded in freefall into its own footprint, and then 29 minutes later when the North Tower came down in the same impossible freefall way.

The new forensic evidence which is being released today by Architects and Engineers for 9/11 Truth demonstrates the presence of controlled demolition materiel in the World Trade Center buildings One and Two.

Just one week after September 11, Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Administrator Christine Todd Whitman declared “I am glad to reassure the people of New York and Washington DC that their air is safe to breathe and their water is safe to drink” and that we “. . . need not be concerned about environmental issues as [we return to [our] homes and workplaces”.

Yet to this day, at least 900 first responders have since died as a result of the effects of toxic “dust” from the buildings and the some 3,000 human remains that enveloped lower Manhattan and which Mayor Rudolph Giuliani declared “We must clear the rubble”. This “rubble” in fact constituted evidence from a massive crime scene, but was hauled away, first to Long Island, and then was eventually placed on barges and shipped to China.

One thing I know is that the official government story of those events, as well as what took place that day at the Pentagon, is just that, a story. This story is not the truth, but far from it.

I was born on October 12, 1932. I am announcing today that I will be consuming only liquids beginning Sunday until my eightieth birthday in 2012 and until the real truth of what truly happened on that day emerges and is publicly known.
Thanks
erica678@hotmail.com

Original Posts
Toxic Workplace; December 14, 2011
Controlled Demolition Material

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Medication Errors

September 11, 2009

You are so correct! Providers must be advocates for our patients. We need to LISTEN to what they are saying to avoid critical medication errors. We are our patients’ voices. We must not be so hurried that we simply dismiss information that our patients’ tell us.

Original Post
September 7, 2009
Title: Biological, Radiological and Chemical Terrorism
With September 11th soon approaching, a very sad and emotionally draining memory of that tragic day remains in people’s minds around the world. Sophisticated security measures have evolved because of this specific devastation in order to protect our citizens in a more diligent and effective manner. Understanding the detrimental physiological and psychological dynamics of such violence has also become a much greater concern for health care professionals in the event of another terrorist attack. How to respond and treat patients if or when a crisis of this magnitude arises requires further educational focus. Within this chapter, Lehne (2007) discussed inhalation and cutaneous anthrax, francisella tularensis (tularemia), yersinia pestis (pneumonic plague), variola virus (smallpox), botulism toxin, ricin, sulfur mustard (mustard gas) as well as various nuclear bombs and radiation emergencies (Pgs 1252-1257). Recognizing and comprehending the clinical manifestations/medical treatments of these deadly toxins are essential for nurses in order to save lives engulfed in catastrophic conditions. Lehne (2007) noted that with regard to inhalation anthrax, “Even with treatment, the mortality rate can be high: In the U.S. outbreak in 2001, 45% of victims died” (Pg. 1252). Lehne (2007) further stated such statistics with cutaneous anthrax, “In the absence of antibiotic therapy, about 20% of people with cutaneous anthrax die” (Pg. 1252). The availability and proper use of antibiotics early would likely reduce the number of fatalities. The variola virus (smallpox) is also a very deadly and highly contagious disease that can cause a fatality rate of 30%. Because of the serious outbreak of this disease in the 1940’s, global vaccination measures were implemented, resulting in the last case of smallpox worldwide occurring in 1977. Lehne (2007) stated, “The successful elimination of smallpox has set the stage for its potential return as a weapon of terrorism. If we hadn’t eradicated natural smallpox, then vaccination would still be ongoing. As a result, the population would have immunity, making smallpox useless as a weapon” (Pg. 1254). Reinstating the smallpox vaccination presents risk including possible death, though statistics are relatively low for a terminal reaction. Receiving a smallpox vaccination versus contracting this disease still suggests that the benefits may outweigh the risks, particularly for health care professionals. The most deadly biological threat mentioned in this chapter was the use of botulism toxin. Lehne (2007) noted, “Just 1 gram, if evenly dispersed and inhaled, could kill more than 1 million people” (Pg. 1256). Because of strict drug regulations by the CDC, the only method of treatment is the use of botulism antitoxin at a dosage of 10 mL, administrated by slow IV infusion. With such statistics, it would be highly difficult to properly prepare for this type of devastation. Chemical and radiologic weapons also continue to represent serious terrorist threats worldwide creating a heightened concern and greater need for advanced education for nursing and health care professionals. References Lehne, R.A. (2007). Pharmacology for Nursing Care (Sixth Edition). Pgs. 1252-1257.

Original Post
June 17, 2009
Title: Medication Errors
Medication errors are a major problem in hospitals, nursing homes, and clinics everywhere. There are many steps taken to avoid these errors, but they still happen. It can be an accident which could cost a person their life. Nurses need to be sure and follow the steps to avoid making errors and listen to the patients concerns about a medication. I have had a first hand experience with being given a wrong medication. I have a severe allergy to penicillins. I repeatedly told the nurse and the doctor about it and even witnessed the nurse close the medication allergy alert that popped up on the computer screen. When I questioned the nurse about the medication she told me that it was not in the penicillin "family." I went home, took the medication and ended up in the emergency room. If the nurse and doctor would have taken the time to listen to what I was saying my trip to the ER could have be avoided. The nurse always should be an advocate for the patient and always check whatever it is the patient is questioning.

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Biological, Radiological and Chemical Terrorism

September 7, 2009

With September 11th soon approaching, a very sad and emotionally draining memory of that tragic day remains in people’s minds around the world. Sophisticated security measures have evolved because of this specific devastation in order to protect our citizens in a more diligent and effective manner. Understanding the detrimental physiological and psychological dynamics of such violence has also become a much greater concern for health care professionals in the event of another terrorist attack. How to respond and treat patients if or when a crisis of this magnitude arises requires further educational focus. Within this chapter, Lehne (2007) discussed inhalation and cutaneous anthrax, francisella tularensis (tularemia), yersinia pestis (pneumonic plague), variola virus (smallpox), botulism toxin, ricin, sulfur mustard (mustard gas) as well as various nuclear bombs and radiation emergencies (Pgs 1252-1257). Recognizing and comprehending the clinical manifestations/medical treatments of these deadly toxins are essential for nurses in order to save lives engulfed in catastrophic conditions. Lehne (2007) noted that with regard to inhalation anthrax, “Even with treatment, the mortality rate can be high: In the U.S. outbreak in 2001, 45% of victims died” (Pg. 1252). Lehne (2007) further stated such statistics with cutaneous anthrax, “In the absence of antibiotic therapy, about 20% of people with cutaneous anthrax die” (Pg. 1252). The availability and proper use of antibiotics early would likely reduce the number of fatalities. The variola virus (smallpox) is also a very deadly and highly contagious disease that can cause a fatality rate of 30%. Because of the serious outbreak of this disease in the 1940’s, global vaccination measures were implemented, resulting in the last case of smallpox worldwide occurring in 1977. Lehne (2007) stated, “The successful elimination of smallpox has set the stage for its potential return as a weapon of terrorism. If we hadn’t eradicated natural smallpox, then vaccination would still be ongoing. As a result, the population would have immunity, making smallpox useless as a weapon” (Pg. 1254). Reinstating the smallpox vaccination presents risk including possible death, though statistics are relatively low for a terminal reaction. Receiving a smallpox vaccination versus contracting this disease still suggests that the benefits may outweigh the risks, particularly for health care professionals. The most deadly biological threat mentioned in this chapter was the use of botulism toxin. Lehne (2007) noted, “Just 1 gram, if evenly dispersed and inhaled, could kill more than 1 million people” (Pg. 1256). Because of strict drug regulations by the CDC, the only method of treatment is the use of botulism antitoxin at a dosage of 10 mL, administrated by slow IV infusion. With such statistics, it would be highly difficult to properly prepare for this type of devastation. Chemical and radiologic weapons also continue to represent serious terrorist threats worldwide creating a heightened concern and greater need for advanced education for nursing and health care professionals. References Lehne, R.A. (2007). Pharmacology for Nursing Care (Sixth Edition). Pgs. 1252-1257.

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Bioterrorism

July 22, 2009

I had no idea until taking this pharmacology class taught by Dr. Johnson how easy bioterrorism could be. It is frightening to consider the possibility of some sick mind infecting millions with ricin or anthrax. It would appear that diagnosis would be difficult, at least initially, with the first couple of cases. The symptoms of coughing, tightness in the chest, difficulty breathing, nausea, fever, and weakness mimic many other common illnesses such as flu, pneumonia, and many other respiratory illnesses. In smaller community hospitals I would believe that bioterrorism is not the first thought when a patient presents with these symptoms. The key would have to be the volume of patients presenting with like symptoms. It is a very scary thought as to the ease with which these weapons could be obtained and I hope that we are ready if/when such an attack should occur.

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Variola Virus as a weapon of Biologic terrorism

May 27, 2009

The variola virus causes smallpox. It is very contagoius, highly infectable and life threatening. Due to a global vaccination program, it has been wiped out from us…or has it? The last US case was in 1949, the last case on the planet was in Somalia, in 1977. There is a 30% mortality rate of those that get the disease. In 1972, the vaccine was discontinued in the US., and in 1982, in the rest of the world. So, now if smallpox was to leak out, everyone would be in trouble. It is transmitted person to person by contact with infected or inhaling infected droplets. You can also get it from contaminated clothes or bedding. There is no proven treatment for smallpox, but there is much research being done on the newer antiviral drugs. The only way to prevent smallpox is with the vaccine. Due to fears of it being used as a bioterrorist weapon, military reinstituted it into their mandatory vaccinations in 2003.

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